Testosterone is a hormone belonging to the category of androgens (typically male sex hormones, but also important in women). Testosterone is mainly produced in the cells present in the testes, under the influence of the luteinizing hormone (LH) released by the anterior pituitary. muscle and mass is very greater to increase testosterone
This hormone is secreted with a circadian rhythm, so in the first hours of the morning, the blood peak is reached, which then drops during the rest of the day.
In the human body, testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol: Cholesterol → Pregnenolone → DHEA → Androstenedione → Testosterone
Of all the testosterone produced by the human body, only a small portion circulates in the blood in a free form. Within the circulatory stream, as is the case for many other hormones, it is largely linked (about 98% in men, 99% in women) to specific plasma proteins (Sex Hormone Binding Protein 45% and Albumin 53%) that temporarily inactivate it. Depending on metabolic demands, a small portion of these bonds can break down, leaving testosterone free to migrate into cells.
If there is an excess of free testosterone, the body can neutralize it by transforming it into estradiol (typically female hormone) through a flavoring reaction that occurs mainly at the level of adipose tissue and the central nervous system. Estradiol in turn acts as an inhibitor of the production of this hormone by reducing the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone LH and FSH). This hormone reduces the share of LH produced and consequently the synthesis of testosterone in the testes.
Two key concepts therefore emerge:
– Traditional laboratory tests detect only the share of total testosterone, without giving us information on the share of the free one. To obtain this data, specific and much more complex and expensive tests are required. It follows that classic blood tests can only give us an estimate of the body’s metabolism of androgens.
– Abuse of it, of its precursors or derivatives, could in some sense have effects contrary to what is expected. The excess of testosterone would be transformed into estradiol, a typically female hormone that increases the deposition of fat in specific body regions (see gynecomastia).
How testosterone works in our life:
development of external genitalia
influence on behavior
Age of puberty:
. development and maturation of the external genitalia. acquisition of secondary sexual characteristics (appearance of beard, mustache, hair, lowering of the tone of voice)
. the linear growth spurt of pubertal growth (interaction with GH and IGF-1)
. psyche: more aggressive attitudes and libido development> increased muscle mass
. promotes hair growth, the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, and the possible appearance of baldness. psyche: maintenance of behavioral attitudes and libido. stimulation of spermatogenesis. hematopoiesis: increased production of erythropoietin (EPO)
Muscle mass increases directly proportional to the blood levels (i.e. levels in the bloodstream) of testosterone.
Many athletes increase their circulating testosterone levels through the exercise of the whole body with the appropriate exercises and at a high intensity (or, of course, some use anabolic steroids).
Testosterone performs its biological role through its binding to androgen receptors located on the nuclear membrane.
The steroid-receptor complex that is formed affects the nucleus of the cell by increasing its protein synthesis.
Researchers from the University of Connecticut found that intense whole-body exercise increased testosterone levels significantly more than isolated lower body exercises.
The high levels of this fundamental hormone induced by the training of the whole body would increase the activity of androgenic receptors during the recovery period, a factor that would determine an increase in the rate of protein synthesis and therefore also of the muscle mass.
This scientific-informative study has shown that intense training of the whole body activates three processes which are fundamental for increasing protein synthesis and thus obtaining the maximum as an increase in muscle mass:
– Increased muscle tension
– Increased testosterone level
– Increased androgen receptor activityPages: